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SAT真题解析语法 下篇

2014-10-31 15:07来源:三立在线编辑:小马编辑 分享到:
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SAT真题解析语法 下篇。11月份SAT考试在即,同学们准备好了吗?下面为大家解析了SAT考试中语法相关的真题,并附有答案,同学们可适当进行练习,供同学们进行训练。

  SAT语法真题解析section 5

  1. Whileplaying in the park one morning,aloud argument was gotten into by several of the children over the use ofswings.

  (A) aloud argument was gotten into by several of the children

  (B) aloud argument between several of the children was gotten into

  (C) anda loud argument gotten into by several of the children

  (D) severalof the children getting into a loud argument

  (E) severalof the children got into a loud argument

  答案:E

  类型:逻辑主语。

  解析:句子是doing形式的状语+主句的结构。在语法中,前置doing做非谓语时,doing动作的逻辑主语必须是句子主语,play这个动作的发出者应该是人,所以句子主语只能是人。由此排除ABC三个选项。D选项中,getting into不能做谓语动词,属于句子成分缺失。

  2. Vitamin D,which the body needs in order to absorb calcium,is produced when skinis exposed to ultraviolet rays.

  (A) calcium,is produced

  (B) calcium,and is produced

  (C) calcium,producing it

  (D) calciumand produces

  (E) calciumand produces it

  答案:A

  类型:句子结构。

  解析:句子的主语是维他命D,which引导定语从句做主语的同位语,那么之后必然有句子的谓语动词。因此A选项是正确的。B中and使用错误,and并列成分并不是两个动词。C选项导致主句无谓语动词。DE选项and并列的是定语从句的谓语动词,那么主语维他命D就没有谓语动词了,因此也是错误的。

  3. Designing a computer monitor requires notonly an understanding of electromagnetism,chemistry,andthe psychology of human vision.

  (A) notonly an understanding of

  (B) bothan understanding of

  (C) anunderstanding of not only

  (D) anunderstanding of both

  (E) anunderstanding of

  答案:E

  类型:平行结构

  解析:题目中平行的结构是electromagnetism,chemistry和the psychology of humanvision。AC选项可以直接排除,因为only only和and不能连用。题目是三个名词的并列,因此both…and…这个短语也使用不恰当。BD也可以排除。

  4. Edgar Allan Poe’s poem “The Raven,” partly inspired by atalking raven in the novel Barnaby Rudge by Charles Dickens.

  (A) EdgarAllan Poe’s poem “The Raven,”

  (B) EdgarAllan Poe,whose poem “The Raven” was

  (C) Apoem by Edgar Allan Poe, “The Raven”,which was

  (D) “The Raven” by Edgar Allan Poe’s poem,beinga poem

  (E) “The Raven”,apoem by by Edgar Allan Poe,was

  答案:E

  类型:被动语态

  解析:注意看到句中inspiredby,这明显是被动语态的表达形式,那么inspired前面缺少一个be动词,因此AD可以直接排除。B选项,whose引导定语从句,导致主语EAP这个人没有谓语动词,因此B错。C选项which引导定语从句,但是主语依然没有谓语动词,因此C选项也错。 E选项中,主语是“The Raven” ,两个逗号之间是插入语,wasinspired做谓语动词。E正确。

  5. Unlike coniferous trees,whose leaves are usuallyneedlelike,theleaves of deciduous trees are typically broad and flat.

  (A) theleaves of deciduous trees are typically broad and flat

  (B) itis typical for the leaves of deciduous trees to be broad and flat

  (C) broadand flat leaves are typical of deciduous trees

  (D) deciduoustrees have leaves that are typically broad and flat

  (E) ondeciduous trees,theleaves are typically broad and flat

  答案:D

  类型:比较内容平行

  解析:unlike后面是coniferous trees,那么句子主语必须也是tree才能保持平行,符合这一要求的只有D选项。

  6. Even choosing the least expensiverate,the package wasso heavy that it cost Jose nearly a hundred dollars to mail it to his cousin inMadrid.

  (A) Evenchoosing

  (B) Eventhough choosing

  (C) Eventhough he chose

  (D) Althoughhe had chose

  (E) Althoughchoosing

  答案:C

  类型:逻辑主语。

  解析:choosing的逻辑主语是句子的主语,其动作发出者应该是人,但是句子的主语是thepackage,因此必须要再choose前加上动作发出者,ABE可以直接排除。D选项中,chose使用错误,因为choose的过去分词应该是chosen,综上只能选C。

  7. An early American film star,Pearl White starred inseveral serials whose episodes had suspenseful endings that enticedaudiences to return for the next installment.

  (A) serialswhose episodes had suspenseful endings

  (B) serials,their episodes hadsuspenseful endings

  (C) serials,which had episodes endingsuspenseful

  (D) serialsof whose episodes the suspenseful endings

  (E) serials,each of these episodes hada suspenseful ending

  答案:A

  类型:定语从句

  解析:serials之后的内容是来修饰serials的。A选项whose引导定语从句,划线部分之后的that指代的是endings。B选项是典型的 run-on句子,两个完整的句子之间没有连词,也不构成主从复合句,B错。C选项错在ending suspenseful,end在这里是动词,那么suspenseful应该使用副词形式。D选项是定语从句使用错误,whose引导的定语从句不用再加of了。E也是run-on句子。

  8. Although we typically associate desertswith hot,dry wether,deserts can also be cold,most of Antarctica is adesert despite the continent's frigidtemperatures.

  (A) cold,most of Antarctica is

  (B) cold;most of Antarctica is

  (C) cold,in fact,most of Antarctica is

  (D) cold;whereas most of Antarcticais

  (E) cold,such as most of Antarcticabeing

  答案:B

  类型:句子结构

  解析:原句是典型的run-on,两个完整句子之间没有连词,也不构成主从复合句。C与A选项错误类型一样,都是run-on。D选项首先用了分号,分号之后应该是完整的句子,whereas是连词,所以后面部分不是完整句子。E中being不简洁。

  9. One reason fish spoils faster than meatis due to the fact that the muscle fibers of fish are specialized tofunction best in cold environments.

  (A) meatis due to the fact that

  (B) meatis because of the fact that

  (C) meat,which is because

  (D) meatis that

  (E) meat,since

  答案:D

  类型:固定搭配

  解析:isdue to和is because of是SAT语法中不正规的表达。AB直接排除。C选项which引导定语从句,主句没有谓语动词,C错。E选项中since引导状语从句,主语依然不完整。综上,选D。

  10. The Canada lynx has oversized,webbed paws that act assnowshoes,allowingthem to hunt rabbits even when the snow is deep.

  (A) allowingthem to hunt rabbits even

  (B) allowingit to hunt rabbits even

  (C) evenallowing them to hunt rabbits

  (D) whichallow them to hunt rabbits even

  (E) thisallows it to hunt rabbits even

  答案:B

  类型:代词

  解析:allow的宾语应该是The Canada lynx(三人称单数),所以them直接排除,ACD错误。E选项用this单独使用做主语是错误的。只能选B。

  11. The article praised Isak Dinesen not somuch for her genius as a storyteller but because she was remarkably defiantof society’sexpectations of women during the early twentieth century.

  (A) butbecause she was remarkably defiant

  (B) butbecause of her remarkable defiance

  (C) butfor being remarkably defiant

  (D) asfor her remarkable defiance

  (E) asit did her remarkable defiance

  答案:D

  类型:比较和平行结构

  解析:首先,句中有一个notso much…as…的固定搭配表示比较,由此可以直接排除ABC。比较中又有一个平行结构:not for…,butfor…。因此答案选D。

  12. While candidates for political office think carefully(A)about the way they dress for public appearances,but they(B) generally do not want to appear(C)to care too much(D) about clothes. No error(E)

  答案:B

  类型:句子结构

  解析:while和but在句中都做连词,这样导致句子没有主句了。

  修改建议:把but删掉。

  13. The professor urged(A) herstudents to follow(B) their own career interests,to serve their communities,and believing(C) in the power of their(D)own ideas. No error(E)

  答案:C

  类型:平行结构

  解析:tofollow,to serve和and之后的结构是平行的,不应该用doing形式。

  修改建议:把believing改为to believe。

  14. Karting,or the racing of(A) miniature automobiles calledkarts,originate(B)in the United States in the 1950s after(C) a famous race-car builderdeveloped a kart powered by(D) a lawn-mower engine. No error(E)

  答案:B

  类型:时态

  解析:originate动作发生在过去,应该用一般过去时。

  修改建议:把originate改为originated。

  15. Living in(A) the rain forests ofnortheastern Madagascar,lemurscalled silky sifakas are local known(B) as “ghosts of the forest” because of(C) their(D) fast movements andbone-white fur. No error(E)

  答案:B

  类型:副词

  解析:local本应该修饰known,所以只能用副词形式。

  修改建议:把local改为locally。

  16. For thousands of years the inhabitants of(A)Australia have been(B) digging underground water reservoirs in order forsurviving(C) on one of the world’sdriest(D) continents. No error(E)

  答案:C

  类型:固定搭配

  解析:表目的短语inorder to do,不能改为inorder for doing。

  修改建议:把forsurviving改为to survive。

  17. When the finalists in(A) theessay contest receive their(B) scholarships at(C) the awardsceremony,thefirst-place winner was also given(D) a computer. No error(E)

  答案:D

  类型:时态

  解析:when引导从句用的是一般现在时表将来,主句动作和从句是同时发生的,因此主句应该用一般将来时。

  修改建议:把wasalso改为will also be。

  18. Both Serena,who has just been(A) elected president of the union,and(B) Martin,its treasurer,attends(C) theweekly meetings(D) of the labor council. No error(E)

  答案:C

  类型:主谓一致

  解析:句子的主语是both...and...,因此谓语动词不能用三人称单数。

  修改建议:把attends改为attend。

  19. Although(A) artificiallyintelligent machines can now(B) beat humans at chess,they cannot outperform(C)humans at practical tasks such as(D) folding laundry,cooking,and caring for perts. Noerror(E)

  答案:E

  类型:noerror

  20. When one thinks about opening(A)a new business,you(B)must consider(C) factors such as(D) start-up costs,local competition,and customer demand. Noerror(E)

  答案:B

  类型:代词

  解析:one是泛指,其对应的特指应该是第三人称he or she。

  修改建议:把you改为he or she。

  21. Automatic photo booths that were(A)invented after the discovery of an automated photographic process that eliminated(B)the need(C) not only for negatives but also for(D) cameraoperators. No error(E)

  答案:A

  类型:句子结构

  解析:句中两个动词were和eliminated都是从句中的动词,所以句子主句没有谓语动词。

  修改建议:把that删掉。

  22. Faced with(A) theever-challenging task of balancing(B) school and work,Jillian opted to(C)forego taking a second part-time job and focusing(D) on her studiesinstead. No error(E)

  答案:D

  类型:平行结构

  解析:从语义来进行分析:focus应该和forego是平行的,而不是和take平行。所以不能用doing形式。

  修改建议:把focusing改为to focus。

  23. During her(A) lifetime,M.S.Subbulakshmi wasconsidered one of(B) India’sgreatest singers,andthe recordings she made(C) has secured(D) her reputation forfuture generations. No error(E)

  答案:D

  类型:主谓一致

  解析:has的主语是the recordings,因此不能用第三人称单数。

  修改建议:把has改为have。

  24. If the proposals approved by(A)the city council at its(B) most recent meeting come to fruition(C),several derelict buildingswill see news life after years of neglect(D). No error(E)

  答案:E

  类型:noerror

  25. In 1999 researchers proposed(A)the theory that octopuses engage in(B) play,the deliberate,repeated,seeming useless(C)activity through which(D) intelligent animals explore their world andrefine their skills. No error(E)

  答案:C

  类型:副词

  解析:seeming本应该是修饰useless的,但是seeming是形容词,不能修饰useless。

  修改建议:把seeming改为seemingly。

  26. Consisting of(A) sixty-ninephotographs she took of herself(B) posing in settings resembling thoseof(C) old movies,theUntitled Film Stills series repelled(D) Cindy Sherman to artisticfame. No error(E)

  答案:D

  类型:语义

  解析:repel是排斥,厌恶的意思,用在这里显然不合适。

  修改建议:把repelled改为pushed或者propelled。

  27. You might think that because theyare(A) beautiful,peacockswould make a pleasant pet(B),butin fact their loud,unearthly(C)shrieks are very disturbing(D). No error(E)

  答案:B

  类型:名词单复数

  解析:前面用的复数peacocks,所以后面名词不能用单数形式。

  修改建议:把apleasant pet改为pleasantpets。

  28. For my roommate and I(A) toreduce(B) the amount of trash we threw out each week,we had to resolve to stoping making(C) so many unnecessarypurchases(D) in the first place. No error(E)

  答案:A

  类型:代词

  解析:for是介词,介词后面的代词只能用宾格形式。

  修改建议:把I改为me。

  29. That(A) the director won anAcademy Award for his most recent(B) movie surprised those of us whofelt that the film was far inferior(C) to those made by several of his competitorsfor(D) the coveted prize. No error(E)

  答案:E

  no error

  Questions 30-35 refer to the followingpassage.

  (1)When Pluto was first detected in 1930,it was welcomed as a newly discovered planet. (2)Theirreaction was understandable. (3)Pluto was initially thought to be about thesize of Earth and therefore of proper planetary dimensions. (4)But by the late1970s,closerobservation had established that Pluto was in fact less than half the size ofMercury. (5)Dismayed,someastronomers now began to question whether so small an object deserved to beranked among the planets.

  (6)Pluto differs from the other planets also in that it is composedlargely of ice——more like a comet than a typical planet. (7)In the 1990sit was discovered that Pluto was just the largest of hundreds of comet-likebodies occupying a region known as the Kuiper Belt. (8)Pluto,the doubters argued,should therefore be classedwith these icy objects rather than with the planets.

  (9)Rushing to Pluto’sdefense,manyastronomers rejected these arguments,pointingout that the established planets differ among themselves in both compositionand size. (10)Mars,forinstance,is composedof metal and rock,whileNeptune is mostly gas. (11)Why,then,could a planet not just aswell be composed of ice? (12)Andas for size difference,Jupiteris 1300 times larger than Earth,butno one would suggest that the two bodies therefore cannot both be planets.

  (13)Clearly they need to resolve the issue of Pluto’s classification. (14)In 2006the International Astronomical Union defined a planet as a body that directlyorbits the Sun,islarge enough to be rounded by its own gravity,and has cleared its neighboring region of other orbitingbodies. (15)Pluto was judged to satisfy the first two criteria but not thethird,because of allthe Kuiper Belt objects populating its neighborhood.

  30. In context,which of the following is the best version of theunderlined portion of sentence 1(reproducedbelow)?

  When Pluto was first detected in 1930,it was welcomed as a newlydiscovered planet.

  (A) (asit is now)

  (B) itwas a newly discovered planet and welcomed as such

  (C) beinga newly discovered planet,itwas welcomed

  (D) thenewly discovered planet was also welcomed by astronomers

  (E) astronomerswelcomed it as a newly discovered planet

  答案:E

  解析:Sentence 2的their指“一群人”,故Sentence1要出现“一群人”,只有E选项是astronomers正确。ABC直接排除; D被动句,不简洁,且意思有所改变。

  31. In context,which of the following revisions of the underlined portionof sentence 4(reproduced below)would add the most relevant information?

  But by the late 1970s,closer observation hadestablished that Pluto was in fact less than half the size of Mercury.

  (A) Mercury,the planet closest to theSun

  (B) Mercury,the smallest of thetraditional planets

  (C) Mercury,which was named for a Romanmessenger god

  (D) Mercury,which was discovered inancient times

  (E) Mercury,whose atmosphere is toothin to support human life

  答案:B

  解析:Sentence5:一些天文学家质疑Pluto太小,认为它不能算作行星。Sentence 4:Pluto比Mercury的一半还小,此处添加的内容必须要凸显Pluto太小,与其他的planets的大小相差过大,从而与Sentence 5相联系,与整段逻辑一致。B:Mercury是traditional planets中最小的,也就是说,Pluto与traditional planets的大小相差过大,符合题目要求。其他选项属于无关选项。

  32. Which of the following sentences,if inserted immediatelybefore sentence 6,wouldprovide the most effective transition between the first and second paragraphs ?

  (A) Pluto’s anomalous size was not theonly source of doubt.

  (B) Thiswas not the first time that a planet’sstatus has been called into question.

  (C) Suchscientific disputes can become surprisingly heated.

  (D) Thequestion of who deserves credit for a scientific discovery is sometimesdifficult to settle.

  (E) Manywere shocked at the suggestion that Pluto was not really a planet.

  答案:A

  解析:第一段的Sentence 5提出Pluto受到质疑的一个原因:too small;第二段的Sentence 6提出第二个原因:composed of ice。A:size不是唯一质疑,符合上下句;B、C与下文无关;D选项与上下文均无关。此处已经提到了质疑的两方面,E选项中“Pluto有可能不是行星,这个说法让很多人震惊了”,与上下文的内容不符。

  33. In context,which of the following is the best revision of theunderlined portion of sentence 7(reproduced below)?

  In the 1990s it was discovered thatPluto was just the largest of hundreds of comet-like bodies occupying a regionknown as the Kuiper Belt.

  (A) Inthe 1990s,however,

  (B) Inthe 1990s,bycomparison

  (C) Infact,in the 1990s

  (D) Similarly,in the 1990s

  (E) Consequently,in the 1990s

  答案:C

  解析:Sentence 6提出第二个质疑:composed of ice,Sentence7 Pluto是许许多多的comet-like bodies中最大的,Sentence 7 更进一步说明Pluto与其他bodies相似,从而不能算作planets。AB的转折关系错误;E的因果关系错误,原文没有“因此”这层意思,Sentence 7是事实,不是结论。C的“In fact”符合题目要求。D的similarly:同样地,Sentence 7与Sentence 6没有进行比较。

  34. In context,which of the following is the best version of theunderlined portion of sentence 13(reproduced below)?

  Clearly they need to resolve the issueof Pluto’sclassification.

  (A) (asit is now)

  (B) thepublic needs

  (C) somethingwas needed

  (D) furtherobservations were needed

  (E) aprecise definition of planet hood was needed

  答案:E

  解析:A选项中的的they无指代对象,且need时态错误;B的needs 时态错误;C的something表意不清;D、E相比,Sentence 14提到了IAU对planet下的定义,所以从上下句看,E选项更符合要求。

  35. Which of the following sentences, ifplaced immediately after sentence 15, would best conclude the passage?

  (A) Pluto’s discover, Clyde Tombaugh,had died in 1997 and so did not live to see his beloved planet demoted.

  (B) Ceresand Pallas had undergone a similar demotion in the nineteenth century when theywere reclassified as asteroids rather than planets.

  (C) Ultimately,then, Pluto was demoted from planetary status not because of its small size butbecause of the clause company it keeps.

  (D) Thiswas perhaps the most momentous decision that the International AstronomicalUnion had made in its 87-year history.

  (E) Nonetheless,supporters of Pluto point out that it has more moons than Mars, Earth, Venus,or Mercury.

  答案:C

  解析:总结句的作用有三个:一是重复前句,二是总结本段,三是总结全文。本段提出了definition,Sentence 15提到Pluto不满足第三个条件,C提到demoted(降级)与之呼应,且C的后半句与前文呼应。其他选项都无关。

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